Duel! Clay and Wickliffe, Men of Honor

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“In 1841, [Cassius Marcellus Clay] fought a duel with Robert Wickliffe, Jr.; neither was injured.”

That is all The Kentucky Encyclopedia has to say about the duel between Cassius Marcellus Clay, the Lion of White Hall, and Robert Wickliffe, Jr., son of Kentucky Statesman Robert Wickliffe and nephew to Governor Charles A. Wickliffe. But for Locust Grove, this was a significant event in the history of the site, and on  July 31, when Clay and Wickliffe face off for a 21st century reenactment of this conflict, and all the ritual and etiquette that comes with dueling itself.

In its heyday in the United States, dueling was a fashionable way of defending one’s honor. There was a prescribed set of steps that must be followed in order to challenge one to a duel, accept the challenge, decide on time, location, and weapons, and so forth. It was perhaps not the most productive form of conflict resolution, but it allowed one individual to demand satisfaction from another for an insult or an injustice without descending into chaos and brawling. Historian Joanne B. Freeman remarks in Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic that “The strictures of honor controlled, channeled, and masked political combat by providing a shared code of conduct that enforced gentlemanly standards of behavior. Men who did not abide by these rules were neither gentlemen nor leaders” (170). Over time, there have been several codifications of the rules of dueling, but one of the most widespread was the Code Duello, set out in 1777 by a group of Irishmen. You can read the complete list of rules here, but we here at Locust Grove have caught Hamilton mania and would be remiss if  we didn’t share “Ten Duel Commandments”, which helpfully compresses the dueling code into a catchy tune. Have a listen:

 

So, let’s recap. A conflict arises; one man challenges the other to a duel to demand satisfaction for an injustice against him. The other accepts. Through their seconds, the challenged chooses weapons and location while the challenger chooses the distance. The seconds, the only true witnesses to the duel, negotiate all other terms of the duel, all the while offering opportunities for the challenged man to apologize to the challenger. If an apology was given and accepted at any time, the matter would be ended, and the duel would be cancelled. Generally, in a duel with pistols, the weapons are discharged by each man at least once, with further shots being taken if no one is injured and no one yields. As stated in Rule 22, “Any wound sufficient to agitate the nerves and necessarily make the hand shake, must end the business for that day.” There are no winners or losers in a duel–the challenger will be satisfied that his honor is intact, while the challenged will have upheld all the rules of the duel to answer for his insult to his rival’s character.

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1902 illustration of the Hamilton-Burr Duel in 1804. 

 

As time passed, it seems that most people agreed with Burr’s (fictional) statement that “duels are dumb and immature.” (For those specifically interested in the Hamilton-Burr Duel in 1804, there will be a special lecture on this event at 3PM on July 31 as part of the duel reenactment.) Duels were outlawed in 18 states by 1859, and continued to lose popularity by the end of the 20th century. However, here in Kentucky, since a new state constitution was ratified in 1891, any official elected to state office must swear to the following statement:

“I, being a citizen of this State, have not fought a duel with deadly weapons within this State nor out of it, nor have I sent or accepted a challenge to fight a duel with deadly weapons, nor have I acted as second in carrying a challenge, nor aided or assisted any person thus offending, so help me God.”

This constitutional statement effectively put an end to the practice of dueling in Kentucky–but forty-one duels were fought in the Commonwealth between 1790 and 1867, including the one between Cassius Marcellus Clay and Robert Wickliffe, Jr. on May 13, 1841.

Cassius Marcellus Clay “the Lion of White Hall”, was the son of Green Clay, and the cousin of Henry Clay. He served three terms in the Kentucky House of Representatives, and became an anti-slavery advocate after hearing a speech given by William Lloyd Garrison while attending Yale. He published an anti-slavery newspaper, True American, and suffered many death threats and physical attacks on his purpose due to his political views. A friend of Abraham Lincoln’s, he served as United States Ambassador to Russia from 1863 to 1869.

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Cassius Marcellus Clay, c. 1844-1860

Robert Wickliffe, Jr., “the Young Duke”, was the son of Robert Wickliffe, who like Clay’s father, was one of the richest planters in Kentucky. Wickliffe’s uncle was Charles A. Wickliffe, governor of Kentucky from 1839-1840. Wickliffe Jr. served as Charge d’Affairs to Sardinia under President John Tyler. Wickliffe and Clay had been classmates at Transylvania University, and came up in Kentucky politics together, although Wickliffe was greatly influenced by his father, “the Old Duke”.

So, why did Clay and Wickliffe duel on Locust Grove’s lawn? For one thing, they were political rivals. In the election of 1840, they both campaigned for the same seat in the Fayette County General Assembly. They also had very different views on slavery, specifically the repeal of an 1833 statute that outlawed the importing slaves in to Kentucky to be sold. Clay opposed the repeal of this law, and the practice of slavery, declaring himself in favor of the gradual emancipation of slavery, while Wickliffe accused him of being an abolitionist who sought a rebellion against the state. At one point during a speech, Wickliffe brought up Clay’s wife, Mary Jane Warfield Clay, and an outraged Clay challenged him to a duel. As Lashe D. Mullins and Charles K. Mullins write in A History of White Hall: House of Clay, “Clay was always certain to act if he felt like his views or his (or his wife’s honor) were put into question” (44). As the Code Duello states in Rule 10, “Any insult to a lady under a gentleman’s care or protection to be considered as, by one degree, a greater offense than if given to the gentleman personally, and to be regulated accordingly.” Clay had an obligation to stand up for his wife’s honor was well as his own. Other sources state that Clay also insulted Wickliffe’s father, Robert Wickliffe, “the Old Duke”, one of the richest slaveholders in the state. Both men had their reasons for entering into such an affair of honor.

In a letter to his brother-in-law, General Thomas Jesup, Dr. John Croghan details the day of the duel, as several men essentially showed up on his lawn to duel it out:

 

“Locust Grove, May 15, 1841
Dear Genl,
In my letter to Mary [Jesup] I remarked that I would write to you the ensuing Tuesday; but the unexpected arrival here of some half a dozen gentlemen to settle an affair of honor prevented my doing so. It seems Mr. Cassius Clay of Lexington (son of Genl Green Clay) & Mr. Wickliffe junr are candidates for the Assembly, and in the heat of debate, while addressing the multitude, the former spoke very disparagingly of the Father of the latter. The consequence of which was Wickliffe challenged Clay. John Rowan [1773-1843] was Wickliffe’s second, & Mr. Peyton of Virginia, Genl [Albert Sidney] Johns(t)on [1803-1862] of Texas & Mr. W[illiam] Preston [1816-1887] his friends. They remained here until Thursday & left enough in the post at the end of the lane to answer my purposes for 12 months. The friends of Clay were Majr [William R.] McKee [1806-1847] formerly of the Army[,] second, and W. Payne & Dr. Marshall junr of Lexington. Both parties it seemed had agreed to meet here & but for an accidental circumstance would. They fought near our Mill and after the exchange of a shot a reconciliation ensued. They missed, but my opinion has that they are men of courage. A laughable report got out of my getting them to fight in the mill house. After the affair was over all parties came to the house, where they met Judge [Henry] Pirtle [1798-1880], Judge [Samuel Smith] Nicholas [1797-1869]; [William Fontaine] Bullock [1807-1889]. & [James] Guthrie [1792-1869] who had come out with a view of stopping the fight. I had for all something to eat & drink and I think they went home as happy as they left there.”

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We hope you’ll join us for the reenactment of this Kentucky affair of honor on July 31! Full schedule is below; admission is $6 for adults and $3 for children. It will satisfy all my dearest wishes to see you there.

Schedule of Events
Historical Fashion Show 1:30 pm
Dancing in the Auditorium (includes lesson) 2 pm
Lecture: The Burr & Hamilton Duel 3 pm
Clay & Wickliffe Duel 4 pm
Includes a demonstration and discussion of firearms in 1841 as well as a narration and reenactment of the duel itself

Honorably yours,

Hannah

Further reading:

Alexander Hamilton by Ron Chernow

Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic by Joanne B. Freeman

The Kentucky Encyclopedia by John Kleber

A History of White Hall: House of Clay by Lashe D. Mullins and Charles K. Mullins

Lion of White Hall: The Life of Cassius M. Clay by David L. Smiley

Cassius Marcellus Clay: Firebrand of Freedom by H. Edward Richardson

*Promotional photographs courtesy of Fox and Rose Photography.

 

Volunteer Spotlight: Keith S., Everyman Extraordinaire

Summer at Locust Grove is always filled with exciting events, and after the success of last summer’s wedding reenactment, we decided to try another new event. On July 31, join us as we reenact the 1841 duel between Cassius Marcellus Clay and Robert Wickliffe, Jr. This event carried out the ritual and etiquette of dueling, and while no one was hurt, the rules of dueling require a doctor to be on site. Clay and Wickliffe smartly chose Locust Grove as the site of their showdown, meaning that Dr. John Croghan, Locust Grove’s owner at the time, would be able to provide medical attention if needed. At our own duel, Dr. John Croghan will be portrayed by Keith S., who has been volunteering at Locust Grove for the past six years. Keith regularly appears as 1840s Dr. John, as the First Person Interpreter Corps also incorporates an 1816 Dr. John into the cast. Keith also serves as the assistant director of the First Person Interpreter Corps, providing a wealth of logistical support to the program. Read on to learn more about Keith’s many contributions!
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Keith, as Dr. John Croghan, surveys the land he owns at Locust Grove.  Photo courtesy of Fox and Rose Photography. 

 

 How did you become a volunteer? 

My wife and son were already volunteers and I decided to join in.

What is your favorite part of volunteering at Locust Grove? 

Interacting with guests.
What else would you like people to know about you? 
I started volunteering as a Costumed Interpreter in order to push myself out of my comfort zone. It’s become one of the most rewarding things that I do.I’m continually amazed at the wealth of talent, knowledge, and enthusiasm that the Costumed Interpreters bring to HLG. I’m proud to work with them, both in costume and behind the scenes.

Here’s what others have to say about Keith!

Amy L.: Keith is a dedicated member of our cast- I still remember his wonderful audition where he brought Dr. John’s dry wit to life. However, he has gone much further than that by taking on a volunteer management role this year as our Assistant Director. He has the grace, charm, and strength of character to help manage and direct our sometimes slightly chaotic crew.

Brian Cushing: Keith is a rare sort of amazing volunteer. He can be turned loose on an event with no particular job other than to identify issues and solve them and they will always be resolved in the best manner possible, freeing staff to deal with other logistics and all around keeping the gears moving smoothly. No job is too big, dirty, or sweaty, and he does it all pleasantly and with a passion for making the Locust Grove experience the best it can be. When Keith arrives on site, I know it’s going to be a good day.

Thanks for all the you do, Keith! Look for Keith in action on during the duel on July 31!

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For more information on volunteering at Locust Grove, why not go here? And if you’re interested in being featured or nominating someone for the volunteer spotlight, go ahead and fill out this form. And to all of our volunteers–we couldn’t run Locust Grove without you!

Sincerely yours,

Hannah

P.S. To receive updates on all the goings-on at Locust Grove, why not join our e-mailing list? Sign-up HERE to receive monthly updates! Or if you foresee numerous visits to Locust Grove in your future, why not become a member? Friends of Locust Grove receive free admission, invitations to members-only events, a 10% discount in the Museum Store, a copy of our quarterly newsletter, The Grove Gazette and much, much more! More information can be found HERE.

You can also follow Locust Grove on the web by subscribing to the blog on the right, and following us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest. (We’re everywhere!)

Those Caving Croghans: Locust Grove visits Mammoth Cave

This is a very momentous year for the National Park Service–it’s the National Park Centennial! To celebrate this occasion, Locust Grove staff and volunteers took a tour of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky’s only National Park and the longest known cave system in the world. Mammoth Cave has a noteworthy connection to Locust Grove–Dr. John Croghan, the eldest son of William and Lucy Croghan, purchased Mammoth Cave in 1839 for $10,000, and retained possession of the cave until his death in January of 1849. The cave is an important part of the Croghan family history and legacy, and it was a treat to learn more about its history. Let’s retrace our steps and hit the highlights of the day!

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We found our park!

Our first stop once we reached the park was a special presentation by Ranger Chuck DeCroix. Ranger Chuck not only reminded us of the National Park Centennial, but told us that Mammoth Cave would be celebrating its 75th Anniversary as a National Park on July 1, 2016! Mammoth Cave receives roughly 4,000-5,000 visitors per day, with an annual visitation of 650,000. Locust Grove’s own Del Marie V. is a Barren County native and a member of Friends of Mammoth Cave, and she and her family have been a part of preserving Mammoth Cave’s legacy since its inception as a National Park. Guided cave tours have been conducted for 200 years!

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Current map of Mammoth Cave.

In the early 19th century, Mammoth Cave was valued for the presence of calcium nitrate, which was essential for the production of saltpeter. An early map of the cave known as the Eye Draught Map, produced in 1809, showed the location of the niter soil so useful to making saltpeter. Original copies of this map were in the collections of Thomas Jefferson and Dr. Benjamin Rush. In addition to being a signer of the Declaration of Independence, Dr. Rush was also a prominent physician of the day, and Dr. John Croghan studied with him from 1809-1812.In fact, it has very recently been discovered that John Croghan first visited Mammoth Cave in 1815 while traveling on the Green River. Mammoth Cave researchers have just found his signature carved into the cave wall, dated February 26, 1815. Previously, the first Croghan family member to visit Mammoth Cave was thought to be Nicholas Croghan, who left a signature in candlesmoke in Gothic Avenue on May 7, 1825, barely a month before he died.

When Dr. John purchased Mammoth Cave on October 8, 1839 for $10,000, he bought the property from Franklin Gorin, an attorney who a year earlier had brought several slaves to the cave. One of these slaves was Stephen Bishop, who, according to Ranger Chuck, was one of the greatest explorers of Mammoth Cave of all time. Bishop and the other Mammoth Cave slaves were also purchased by Dr. John along with the Cave. Stephen Bishop was the first to cross the Bottomless Pit into previously unexplored parts of the cave, and served as a tour guide until his death in 1857. One of Bishop’s most notable contributions was a map of the Cave drawn from memory at Locust Grove during the winter of 1841-1842, which was the most complete map of the cave to date. His former owner Franklin Gorin said of him after his death that “his great talent was a perfect knowledge of man”, and Stephen Bishop’s legacy can still be felt at the Cave today.

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When Dr. John purchased Mammoth Cave in 1839, he had high hopes for the tuberculosis treatment hospital he planned to open. Patients were housed in huts, of which two are still standing deep in the cave. In November of 1839, Dr. John wrote to his brother-in-law, General Thomas Jesup, of his plans for the cave, noting that “Owing to the uniformity of temperature throughout the year […] the dryness of the atmosphere and the continual purification thereof by the constant formation of salt Petre, I have no doubt there is no where to be found a spot so desirable for persons laboring under pulmonary affections […]” Unfortunately, the ten month experiment from the fall of 1842 into 1843 was a dismal failure, as none of his 15 patients improved and several died while undergoing treatment in the Cave. Nevertheless, the Croghan stamp is all over the Cave. There is a section called Croghan Hall and another called Clark’s Avenue, named for Dr. John and George Rogers Clark, respectively. Dr. John’s nieces and nephews inherited the cave along with his other property after his death from tuberculosis in 1849, and Serena’s Arbor bears the name of his niece, Serene Croghan, while Jesup’s Domes are individually named Lucy Ann and Julia for the daughters of his sister, Ann Croghan Jesup. 

During our cave tour, we were able to see two places of especial interest to fans of Locust Grove. One of our first stops was Gothic Avenue, where scores of visitors wrote their names in candlesmoke to mark their visit. One of these signatures was that of Nicholas Croghan, who visited in 1825.We  visited on June 18, and the next day, June 19, was the 114th birthday of Nicholas and his twin brother Charles. So naturally we sang Happy Birthday to them in front of Nicholas’s signature!

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Happy Birthday, Nicholas!

We also had the chance to visit the two remaining tuberculosis huts left over from Dr. John’s experimental hospital. This was a rather grim experience, as Ranger Chuck explained that visitors to the cave while patients were in residence described them as skeletons. I tried to take a picture of the huts, but the low light in the cave meant that my picture didn’t turn out so well. (You can see better images here and here.)

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Actual photo taken by Hannah inside Mammoth Cave. Beautiful, right?

We denizens of Locust Grove spent almost two hours in Mammoth Cave, strolling down Gothic Avenue, admiring the various geological formations, and learning so much about the Cave that I’m sure I’ve forgotten something! It was incredible to think that the same Historic Entrance we used to enter and exit the Cave was used by Dr. John, Nicholas, Stephen Bishop, and thousands upon thousands of other visitors.

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Heading down into the Cave by way of the Historic Entrance.

It was also just fun to spend the day together! We hope you’ll be able to join us for one of our day trips in the future!

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We’re about to head down into the Cave! Can you spot George Rogers Clark in this photo?

All of us at Locust Grove are especially excited because it’s almost time for our favorite holiday–Independence Day! As is our tradition, admission to Locust Grove will be FREE on July 4 from 10-4:30pm, and will feature readings of the Declaration of Independence, period demonstrations, concessions by Sweet and Savory, and lots of 1816 celebratory flair! Come celebrate American Independence in 2016 by traveling back to 1816!

Yours in historical spelunking,

Hannah

P.S. To receive updates on all the goings-on at Locust Grove, why not join our e-mailing list? Sign-up HERE to receive monthly updates! Or if you foresee numerous visits to Locust Grove in your future, why not become a member? Friends of Locust Grove receive free admission, invitations to members-only events, a 10% discount in the Museum Store, a copy of our quarterly newsletter, The Grove Gazette and much, much more! More information can be found HERE.

You can also follow Locust Grove on the web by subscribing to the blog on the right, and following us on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest. (We’re everywhere!)