With the onset of fall here at Locust Grove, we are delighted to welcome school groups on a weekly basis to tour the house and grounds and learn about work and play in the late 1790s and early 1800s. All these students exploring Locust Grove for the first time got me thinking about the children This got me thinking about the education of the Croghan children during their time here at Locust Grove. The Croghans had eight children: John, George, William Jr., Ann, Eliza, Charles, Nicholas, and Edmund. All eight started their education at home, likely in the Grand Parlor on the second floor of the house. Around the age of ten or twelve, depending on the child, they were sent away to school. John and George attended Dr. Priestley’s Seminary in Danville, KY, William, Jr. attended Transylvania College and Dickinson College, the twins Charles and Nicholas attend St. Thomas College near Springfield, KY, and Edmund attended Jefferson Seminary. For a short period of time, Ann and Eliza studied at Louisa Keats’ Domestic Academy, but Eliza became homesick and they continued their education at home with their parents and cousin Emelia Clarke.
Of the eight siblings, John became a physician, George a soldier, and William Jr. practiced law, while Ann and Eliza made advantageous marriages. Sadly, Charles, Nicholas, and Edmund died before taking up an occupation. Charles actually died of tuberculosis in Paris in 1832 at the age of 30, attended by his brother Dr. John. All of the brothers left behind many letters between themselves and their parents, letters which reveal close and loving relationship between family members. Some of my favorites written during the brothers’ school days are excerpted below. Please enjoy!
John Croghan to Majr. William Croghan, Danville April 27th 1807
Being considerably engaged at present in my scholastic pursuits, and having a very conspicuous office to fill in the Sophomore society, the supposition must be that I am bereft of the pleasure of writing to you as often as I here to fore have done.
In your last letter to me I observe that you intend taking my Brother [George] & myself from this Seminary as soon as our year will expire with Mr Priestley (the termination of which will be the first of June) and then to send us to one of the Eastern Colleges. It is my wish to go to some University for the further refinement of my mental improvements, and if it were left to my choice I should prefer that of Cambridge [Harvard College], which on account of its Learned professors, Library, and Apparatus is in higher repute than any University in the United States. As to the College at Baltimore I am in hopes you have no thoughts of sending us to for I consider this as a Seminary of learning far superior to it. The studies which I am at present engaged are Geography, Homer (a Greek author) Terence, and Arithmetic occasionally, and Rhetoric – I have completed the study of Euclid, and Trigonometry. I have nothing more to relate to you at present without entering on the borders of politics.
I was extremely sorry that I could not accompany my Brother to Jefferson, but it was utterly impossible. I had made frequent application for Horses, but was as often refused; numbers of the students were detained here on this account. Give my respects to Mama and Family, and likewise to Uncle George Clark whenever you happen to see him; he is an Uncle for whom on account of his noble, independent, and patriotic spirit, on account of the services he has rendered his Country, and the distinguished manner in which he has behaved in the field of Wars I am very partial to. He possessed truly a magnanimous Mind! Adieu for the present my dear Father may the light of Heaven continue to shine around you.
Many defects will occur throughout tis letter which William may point out –
John Croghan to John O’Fallon, Locust grove, June 27th 1807
… the very unfortunate accident which has befallen my Brother Nicholas, … During this last storm which happened previous to my arrival here a tree was blown down not far distant from my Fathers house, on one of the limbs of which he has ascended, and having fallen from there, he struck his Eye on a stick which stood erect from the ground, which penetrated so deeply that it at once demolished both the Retina and Iris of the Eye. We have the sight of his Eye in a wine glass … I shall therefore terminate by stating that Nicholas is deprived of his sight, Uncle George (who is here at present) appears to be very near in the predicament, and indeed the soar Eyes predominate almost throughout the whole neighborhood. Uncle has been here for some time …
Majr William Croghan to Nicholas or Charles Croghan, Locust grove May 11th 1816
My Dear Nicholas or Charles,
I have Received your Letter of the 7th instant which is Wrote and worded in so handsome a Stile (for the first letter you ever Wrote) that I cannot but flatter Myself that in a Short time you will so far Improve as to be equal to most Boys of your Age & Experience. – I got to Bardstown the Evening I left you, where I stayed all Night and the Next Morning Started for home accompanied by Captain Moore and Fortunates Cosby and Arrived in the Afternoon.
At present I wish you to be Instructed in Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Geography & History, One of your brothers or Myself will call to see you this Summer and see what Improvement you have Made and Consult with the professors what Other branches of Education you had better be Instructed in. – your Confinement at College and living there [2 lines scratched out] but you Must put up with it, and Cheerfully Submit to the Rules of the College & advice & Instructions of the professors; you are Sent there to Recover the time you lost at the Stone Schoolhouse where you made but little Improvement in your Education, pray my Dear Boys be attentive to your Books and no doubt you will have a Good Education, your Brother Edmund continues at the Seminary in Louisville and Improves, I hope you will at least Improve in your Education as fast as he does, your Brothers John, George & William have each of them a good Education, and Nothing will give me greater pleasure than to find by your Attention that you are likely to follow their Examples and Acquire a good Education, — your Sisters and Brother Edmund are Much Obliged to you for the pictures, and paintings, — pray Write to me every two or three Weeks, let me know what you are learning, and how you like to live at the College, let me know if you want anything, and if in my power I will Send it for you. — your Mother Brothers & Sisters Unite with me in their love to you wishing you every possible happiness.
I am My Dear Boys
Your Affectionate Father
May 14th I expected to Send this letter by Fortunatus Cosby, with two pair of pantaloons but he will not Start for a few days, when he goes I will Send the pantaloons, — Inform James Bate that his Father has Received the letter he Wrote the Family are all well. WC
Majr. William Croghan to Nicholas & Charles Croghan, Locust grove June 19th 1816
My Dear Nicholas & Charles
I Received the letter you Wrote by Mr Bates, with Several other Letters you wrote a few days before, from those Letters I am Sorry to Observe that you don’t appear Satisfyed with your Situation at the College, which I think in a great Measure proceeds from Improper Advice gave to you by One of two of the Boys at College, you and those Boys were Informed of the Rules that were to be Observed at College and Should conform to them, you was sent there with a view of Improving in your Education which no doubt you will do if attentive to the Instructions of the professors. They are men of Liberal Education, and highly qualified to teach the Different Branches of Education they teach, don’t let the Idle Conversation of a few Unruly Boys who wish to come home have an effect on you; when you write Letters, let them be Wrote by your Selves. – I received the letter you Wrote by the young French Gentlemen, who I supposed Informed you of their Spending an Evening on Board the Steamboat with your Mother, Sisters, & Myself. – Edmund Continues at the Seminary in Louisville, learning Latin &c, — I lately heard from your Brothers George & William, they were well and Expect to be home, George in 5 or 6 weeks, William soon after, when they come no doubt they will pay you a visit. – you must try by All means to be Reconciled to your Situation at College, you now have an Opportunity of Improving in your Education, therefore let me beg you would be Attentive and loose no time, Should you pass over this favourable Opportunity, you never will have it in your power to Improve to such Advantage again,
Let me hear from you frequently and Should you be in want of a little money or anything I can Send let me know & I will sent it, —
Your Affectionate Father
June 25th Since Writing the foregoing I received three letters from you; and your Brother Edmund & Sisters Ann & Eliza One, — We now have plenty of the pictures which you have Inclosed in your letters, Each pickture you inclose in your letter or piece of paper is liable to pay the same postage of a letter, if One piece of paper is inclosed Double postage Must be paid, if two [or] three times the postage, be the papers ever so Small.
Dear Charles I have Received your letter and am glad to Understand by it, that you have conducted yourself so well as to not have a Bad Mark since you went to College, — Pray my Dear Charles try to Improve in your Education you now have a Much better Opportunity of doing it than you will ever have again, as to your coming home the 4th of July you Must not think of it I wish very much to see you and Nicholas but cannot think of your looseing the time at present and [I] Must try to see you if in my power, – My Dear Boys from your Letters I am Sorry to Observe that your clothes are getting very Much worn, I was in hopes your New Coats, with last Summers Coat, and your Cloth Coats with the Other Cloths you had, would have lasted until Next Fall, not in I purposed getting you new Cloths but I shall Make some Arrangement by seeing you or Otherwise by which you Shall have a Supply of Cloths Shortly, until then take what care you can of your Cloths, — I am my Dear
Your affectionate Father
It must be fun to grow up in such a big, bustling family as the Croghans! Don’t forget to stop by for Market Fair next weekend to experience the eighteenth century at Locust Grove! We’ll have an encampment, music, entertainment, food, and so much more! I highly recommend visiting with the rat catcher.
Many happy returns of the season to you!